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Today we resolve constitutional challenges to two provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of We do not consider whether the Act embodies sound policies.
We ask only whether Congress has the power under the Constitution to enact the challenged provisions. In our federal system, the National Government possesses only limited powers; the States and the people retain the remainder. In this case we must again determine whether the Constitution grants Congress powers it now asserts, but which many States and individuals believe it does not possess.
These affirmative prohibitions come into play, however, only where the Government possesses authority to act in the first place. If no enumerated power authorizes Congress to pass a certain law, that law may not be enacted, even if it would not violate any of the express prohibitions in the Bill of Rights or elsewhere in the Constitution.
Indeed, the Constitution did not initially include a Bill of Rights at least partly because the Framers felt the enu-meration of powers sufficed to restrain the Government. And when the Bill of Rights was ratified, it made express what the enumeration of powers necessarily implied: The Federal Government has expanded dramatically over the past two centuries, but it still must show that a constitutional grant of power authorizes each of its actions.
The same does not apply to the States, because the Con-stitution is not the source of their power. The Consti-tution may restrict state governments—as it does, for example, by forbidding them to deny any person the equal protection of the laws. But where such prohibitions donot apply, state governments do not need constitutional au-thorization to act.
Rather, federalism secures to citizens the liberties that derive from the diffusion of sovereign power. United States, U. The independent power of the States also serves as a check on the power of the Federal Government: This case concerns two powers that the Constitution does grant the Federal Government, but which must be read carefully to avoid creating a general federal authority akin to the police power.
The power over activities that substantially affect interstate commerce can be expansive. Put simply, Congress may tax and spend.
This grant gives the Federal Government considerable influence even in areas whereit cannot directly regulate. The Federal Government may enact a tax on an activity that it cannot authorize, forbid, or otherwise control.
And in exercising its spending power, Congress may offer funds to the States, and may condition those offers on compliance with specified conditions. Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Ed. These offers may well induce the States to adopt policies thatthe Federal Government itself could not impose.Apr 26, · Argument analysis: Justices struggle to read “tea leaves” in Congress’s slipshod drafting of Patent Act provisions for inter partes review Posted Tue, April 26th, am by Ronald Mann The oral argument yesterday in Cuozzo Speed Technologies v.
INTRODUCTION A legal text is something very different from ordinary speech. This is especially true of authoritative legal texts: those that create, modify, or terminate the . The transcript of the April 26 Supreme Court oral argument in Sandoz initiativeblog.com has been posted online and is available here..
As we covered briefly, the questioning during the argument focused.
RULES OF THE. SUPREME COURT. OF THE STATE OF HAWAIʻI (SCRU) Adopted and Promulgated by.
the Supreme Court. of the State of Hawaiʻi. As amended April 16, description of Supreme Court practice stands in contrast to the oral argument of John W. Davis in Youngstown Steel and Tube Co.
v. Sawyer, U.S. (). In that case, Davis spoke for 87 minutes, interrupted by only a single question. Chapter 4 covers effective oral argument, including preparation, organizing your notes, the presentation (eye contact, gestures and professionalism), and answering questions.
The oral argument checklist begins on page